Die Auswirkungen der EU-Osterweiterung auf den deutschen Arbeitsmarkt (German Edition)
The developments that lead to the enlargement in were accompanied by concerns in the fifteen old member states EU regarding the potential inflow of workers from the EU Some countries of the EU feared that their labour markets were going to be flooded by Eastern European workers. Polish plumbers and Czech pavers, taking over the jobs of the EU citizens, became symbols of the fear that was spreading in some EU countries. When the enlargement finally took place on May 1, , only three countries of the EU fully applied the EU rules on the free movement of workers — Sweden, the United Kingdom UK and Ireland, the latter two are only restricting certain welfare benefits for Eastern European workers.
The thirteen others made use of the Transitional Arrangements TA that were annexed to the Accession Treaty [iii] - it allows to restrict the free movement of migrant workers from the EU Soon and exactly two years after the accession of the EU-8, these thirteen states have to decide until May 1, , whether they continue to impose the restrictions or to lift them. This essay will focus on two aspects: Firstly, it will examine whether the estimated migration scenarios prior to enlargement have been able to picture the current migration flows correctly.
In a second step, the short- and medium-term impacts of EU migration on the economies of the UK and Germany will be assessed.
Our leading markets
Whereas the former decided to allow migrant workers access to its labour market from the very beginning, the latter had chosen to restrict the free movement of workers and is currently considering extending these restrictions until It will be argued that the fears concerning negative economic effects in the UK were irrational — at least concerning the short-term impact. In regard to the German case, it will be argued that extending the restrictions until will have only a limitedly harmful effect on the economy. To develop these positions, it will be shortly drawn on studies that were conducted prior to enlargement and were aimed at estimating the impact that enlargement would have on East-West labour migration within the EU.
In the next part, the actual scale of East-West labour migration and its impact on the economies of the host countries will be analysed. In both parts, the focus will be put on the UK and Germany. Before ending the paper with a conclusion, the short- and medium-term impacts of EU migration flows to the UK and Germany will be assessed. Since enlargement took place less than two years ago, neither the literature concerning post-enlargement migration nor the amount of data is exceedingly substantial.
However, there are enough sources to conduct an accurate analysis. Considering the short period of time since the enlargement, most of the sources that will be used can only be found in the Internet. Plays by Friedrich Schiller Book 2 editions published between and in German and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide Toneelstuk van de Duitse schrijver over de liefde tussen een burgermeisje en een jonge edelman; met woordverklaringen. Intelligent group movement and selection in realtime strategy games 1 edition published in in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide.
Audience Level. Related Identities. Associated Subjects.
Boris Naujoks deutscher Dramaturg und Autor. German 20 English Author , dgs , Other , Contributor. The first years after the fall of the communist regime in Bulgaria and after German reunification can be labelled as a transition period in their migration relations — A law which came into force in September and which liberalised travel opportunities, meant that Bulgarian citizens could apply for five-year passports, enabling them to travel abroad UNHCR This, combined with further legal changes such as the decriminalisation of non-return after legal departure from the country, may have encouraged the large migration flows after The reunification of the two German states into one — the Federal Republic of Germany — in October led to de facto open Eastern borders where control was virtually absent Kraler, Dzhengozova, Reichel However, very few legal options for migration were made available to the citizens of the former communist countries and the entry of Bulgarian migrants was mostly considered illegal.
The magnitude of migration was not as great as for other Central European countries, due in part to the geographical distance to Germany. In the transition period — the migration dynamics were turbulent and characterised by large numbers of in- and outflows. The unstable economic and political situation in the first years after the fall of the communist regime pushed many people to seek for a better and more secure life in Germany, which became their main destination country Bobeva, Chalukov, Markov Although political asylum had been used in the Cold War period, it was not until the early s that it became the main migration channel for Bulgarian citizens to unified Germany.
PDF Die Auswirkungen der EU-Osterweiterung auf den deutschen Arbeitsmarkt (German Edition)
Furthermore, the transition period was marked by the large-scale emigration of Bulgarian ethnic Turks. The vast majority of them moved to Turkey but some migrated further — to Germany and Austria Sultanova Two reasons may explain this more-distant migration.
On the one hand, Bulgarian Turks who migrated to Turkey and were disappointed by the situation there moved on to Germany Vasileva On the other hand, after the Turkish border was closed on 22 August by decision of the Turkish authorities, migration to Turkey became difficult and migrants headed to Western European countries Mancheva Considering the large community of people of Turkish background in Germany — which constitutes an important social network — the country became an attractive destination for Bulgarian citizens from the Turkish minority.
Between January and March , Bulgarian citizens needed a mandatory visa for short-term entries into all Schengen countries, including Germany. Second, as a reaction to the tremendous flow of asylum-seekers to Germany and the suspicion that economic migrants were circumventing restrictive legislation in European countries under the guise of seeking political asylum Bobeva , the new German asylum law came into force on 1 July As Bulgaria was declared a safe country in through a decision of the Federal Council of Germany, the asylum system as a migration channel for Bulgarian migrants was eliminated.
The visa requirement period was characterised by a severe economic and political crisis in Bulgaria in — when the national currency devaluated drastically and the inflation rate was officially at The unstable political and critical economic situation triggered migration mainly to Southern European countries like Greece, Spain and Italy, whereas official migratory movements to Germany were at modest levels.
The lifting of some restrictions for foreign nationals to study in Germany opened up a further migration channel — the education policy — and correspondingly a new form of migration for educational purposes. Whereas, in the s, posted contract workers prevailed, the relevance of seasonal workers increased in the s. The registered migratory movements increased and temporary labour migration gained predominantly in importance Haug Apart from the officially registered cases, there was also a non-negligible number of irregular migrants who were not covered in the official statistics.
Irregular migration to Germany and the involvement of criminal organisations in smuggling were highly debated issues in this period Bobeva et al. In , Bulgaria was removed from the black Schengen list that marked the beginning of the so-called EU pre-accession period — Bulgarian citizens were granted visa-free entry and three months visa-free residence in Schengen countries. In the context of a free entry and an enduring requirement for an official work permit, many Bulgarian citizens used their stay as tourists to work in the shadow economy. Undocumented work under the guise of tourism was a main pattern of temporary labour migration for CEECs Fihel Yet, for the s, there were indications that seasonal labour migration to Greece and Turkey took place under the guise of tourism Bobeva After , tourism emerged as a form of labour migration to Germany although this was not captured in administrative data as these people generally did not register with the local authorities.
Economic growth and decreasing unemployment characterised the Bulgarian economy. Economic instability as a push factor was less relevant in that period than in the previous phases of migration. A main form of mobility in the s remained migration for educational purposes, with and being the years with the highest numbers of first-year students. Besides the EU-level regulation that had a great impact on Bulgarian migration in the s, Bulgarian citizens benefited from the changing political stance towards migration in Germany. Since the s, German migration policies started displaying an increased acceptance of migration Vogel, Kovacheva The programme was open to both new migrants and foreign students who had obtained their degree at a German university.
Between and , Bulgarian IT specialists received work and residence permits Bundesregierung , which corresponds to 2. Applications from some countries exceeded expectations Liebig but Bulgaria was not considered a country of special interest and did not attract public or political attention. Bulgarian citizens obtained EU citizenship status, which provided them with the right to free movement.
The possibility of introducing transitional provisions was stipulated in the Accession Treaty from April In practice this meant that the employment of a Bulgarian citizen as a dependent worker or as a service provider in construction, building, cleaning or interior decoration was bound to a work permit. Liberalisation for three groups of workers — skilled workers with a university degree who take up a corresponding qualified job, seasonal workers and persons in vocational training — was announced as of The migration of Bulgarian workers to main destination countries such as Spain, Italy and Greece was also restricted.
Only Sweden and Finland among the old EU15 member states did not apply restrictions on labour market access. The redirection of migration flows due to a differential application of transitional rules did not take place to the same extent as with the EU8 countries Holland, Fic, Rincon-Aznar, Stokes, Paluchowski ; Kahanec, Zaiceva, Zimmermann Migration flows were, instead, redirected in the course and in the aftermath of the global economic crisis of which severely hit the classic destination countries for Bulgarian migrants — Spain, Italy and Greece.
Economic disparities remain an important push factor in the post-accession period. The positive economic development in Bulgaria before EU accession was ended by the economic crisis in The unemployment rate reached 13 per cent in compared to 6 per cent in Hanganu, Humpert, Kohls Income differences between Bulgaria and Germany are still substantial, although the GDP per capita has increased over time. Almost half of the Bulgarian population was at risk of poverty in compared to 25 per cent on average for the EU27 Hanganu et al.
The post-accession period of Bulgarian migration to Germany is characterised by specific patterns in terms of dynamics, forms and composition of migration. As migration patterns are captured in administrative data, these were analysed with the aim of identifying changes after The main data sources were the Central Register of Foreigners, providing information on the stock of foreign nationals, and data from local registration offices on in- and outflows of foreign nationals. New data were therefore collected through a migrant survey in Hamburg.
The city state of Hamburg was selected for the case study due to an increasing scale of migration there since EU accession. With Duisburg, Munich and Frankfurt am Main, Hamburg ranked as one of the four cities with the highest net migration from Bulgaria and Romania in Hanganu et al. Based on the so-called time—location sampling Baio, Blangiardo, Blangiardo ; Marpsat, Razafindratsimab , a small-scale survey was carried out between December and March among Bulgarian migrants at selected migrant-oriented meeting points such as religious, cultural and commercial centres.
The data collection at meeting points was complemented by an online version of the questionnaire, sent out via the mailing lists of Bulgarian migrant organisations. In all, persons of Bulgarian background in Hamburg gave information about their migration experience and integration situation in Germany.
Weighted results may thus be generalised to the total Bulgarian population in Hamburg — the sample size corresponds to 6. Migration patterns before and after were compared by looking at administrative and survey data. Administrative data were mostly analysed for the time frame — and, for certain issues, for a longer period of time. Survey data were analysed by dividing the sample into two groups — EU pre-accession migrants who moved to Germany before and EU post-accession migrants who migrated after — and comparing the results. Based on available administrative data and survey results from Hamburg, three main changes in migration are explored: migration dynamics related to flows and stocks, forms of migration related to duration of stay and reasons for migration, and the composition of migration according to migrant characteristics such as age, gender, education and ethnicity.
Migration data give an impression of the scale of Bulgarian migration to Germany since the s and reveal a tremendous change after EU accession. In accordance with the few legal opportunities for migration in the Cold War period, migration to East and West Germany was at a modest level. A mere Bulgarian citizens came to Germany and 86 left the country in Although it was a negligible phenomenon from a quantitative point of view, these migrants were the pioneers of Bulgarian mobility who might have provided crucial support to newcomers in subsequent periods.
Migration dynamics considerably changed after ; since then, Germany has evolved into a preferred destination country for Bulgarian migrants.
- I love sleepy puppies and dogs (A bedtime story for kids children) Volume 1?
- Adultery Addiction.
- Naujoks, Boris [WorldCat Identities].
Figure 1. Inflows, outflows, net migration and stocks of Bulgarian citizens in Germany — Source: Data on inflows, outflows and net migration stem from local registration offices Federal Statistical Office — ; data on stocks stem from the Central Register of Foreigners Federal Statistical Office — ; own compilation. Migration statistics reveal accelerating migratory movements in the post-accession period — , comparable to the boom in the early s. Bulgaria became a main sending country and the Bulgarian community is one of the fastest-growing migrant groups in Germany. Survey results for Hamburg mirror these migration dynamics over time — half of the respondents migrated to Germany after while only 3.